The bearer of the world spirit is the people ruling at this stage of history.
The thinker has repeatedly stressed the need for the state to rely on the law, to focus on it, to coordinate its actions with him.
Like many other thinkers of the time, Kant believed that the state replaced the natural state, in which there was no guarantee of legitimacy. Moral duty, a sense of respect for natural law motivate people to leave this state and move to life in civil society. This transition, ie the formation of the state, is the result of a treaty. A social contract is concluded between morally developed people. It is in the state that they get real freedom. The state is forbidden to treat them as beings who do not know the moral law and cannot choose the right course of action.
For their part, the people must obey the state. The philosopher categorically denies the right of the people to revolt, assuming only legal and passive opposition to the existing government.
Recognizing the idea of separation of powers, I. Kant proceeded from the need for a hierarchy of its types.
He considered the legislature to be the supreme power, which should belong only to the sovereign “collective will of the people.” Executive power is concentrated in the legitimate ruler and is subject to the legislature. The judiciary is appointed by the executive. According to the thinker, the subordination and consent of these types of power can prevent despotism and guarantee the welfare of the state.
Depending on the number of lawmakers, Kant distinguished three forms of government: autocracy, aristocracy and democracy, but did not attach much importance to this division. The main thing he did not consider the form, but the methods and means of exercising power. In this regard, the thinker distinguishes between republican and despotic forms of government. The first is based on the separation of executive power from the legislature, the second – on their merger. According to Kant, a republic in itself does not mean democracy, and autocracy does not mean despotism. An autocratic form of government can be a republic if the executive branch is separated from the legislature, and democracy in the absence of separation of these types of power can be despotism.
I. Kant’s statement and substantiation of the assertion that each person is an absolute and self-sufficient value, that individuals renounce unlimited and arbitrary freedom of the natural state in favor of true freedom in the legal state, that the purpose of the state is perfect law, maximum compliance with the principles law, etc., gives grounds to consider him one of the main creators of the theory of the rule of law and a representative of the liberal trend in the history of political thought.
Unlike I. Kant, his compatriot, the genius German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), spoke from a conservative position. His political and legal doctrine is presented in a holistic and systematic form in the work “Philosophy of Law” (1820). He substantiates the necessity and interpretation of the essence of the state and law, as well as his philosophy in general, is very complex in content, and especially in form, so consider only the key issues of Hegel’s doctrine of the state.
The state, according to Hegel, is the idea of reason, freedom and law. He believed that “the state is the course of God in the world; it is based on the power of the mind, which realizes itself as a will.” The state, therefore, is by nature an ideal, “really reasonable” entity.
Hegel denies the contractual theory of the origin of the state. Freedom of the person, in his opinion, finds its realization primarily in the right of private property. A necessary point in the exercise of reason is a contract in which independent individuals oppose each other as private owners. The subject of the contract can be only a single external thing, which can only be arbitrarily alienated by its owner, ie the contract is the will of individuals. The universal, represented in morality and the state, is not the result of the will of the persons united in the state, therefore, the state is not the result of a social contract.
Hegel defines a labor-mediated system of needs based on the domination of private property and general formal, legal equality of people as civil society and connects its formation only with the formation of the bourgeois system. In his opinion, the existence of the state as an absolute value in itself, which does not require any utilitarian justification, precedes the development of civil society. The state does not depend on civil society, on the contrary, society is impossible without the state.
Hegel was one of the first to make a clear distinction between civil society and the state in the history of help write my lab report political thought. However, according to the logic of his philosophy, he proceeds from the priority of the state in relation to civil society, while in reality there is an opposite relationship: it is not the state that creates civil society, but, on the contrary, civil society creates the state.
In essence, Hegel’s idea of the state is a legal Reality, in the hierarchical structure of which the state acts as the most specific law, as a state governed by the rule of law. The idea of the state, according to Hegel, is manifested in three ways: first, as a direct reality in the form of an individual state, state system, domestic law; secondly, in relations between states as external state law; third, in world history. An individual state is a state as a reality of concrete freedom. In its developed and reasonable form, such a state is a constitutional monarchy based on the division of power.
Hegel associated the existence of the idea of the state only with the then developed European states, in which the Christian idea of freedom was realized, personal independence and equality before the law were achieved, representation and constitutional government were introduced.
Hegel considered the legislature, governmental power and the power of the ruler to be three types of state power. He denied the idea of independence and mutual restriction of the types of power, which, in his opinion, seemed to presuppose their mutual hostility and opposition. Hegel advocated the organic unity of different types of power, the subordination of each of them to the domination of the whole – state unity, which is the essence of the internal sovereignty of the state.
Legislative power, according to Hegel, is the power to determine and establish the universal. It belongs to the legislature. Government power, which includes the judiciary, is to bring special areas and individual cases to the general. The task of government is to implement the decisions of the monarch, support existing laws and institutions. Explaining the nature of the monarch’s competence, Hegel notes that in a perfect constitutional monarchy the objective side of the state affair is determined by law, and the monarch can only attach his will to it.
Hegel understood world history as progress in the realization of freedom and interpreted it as the history of sovereign states, the development of forms of state. Accordingly, he divided world history into four historical worlds: Eastern, Greek, Roman and Germanic, which correspond to the following forms of state: Eastern theocracy, ancient democracy and aristocracy, modern constitutional monarchy. The bearer of the world spirit is the people ruling at this stage of history. Since the Reformation, Hegel considered the German nation to be such a people, by which he meant primarily the Germans.
Thus, Hegel elevates the state as an idea, the reality of law, as a state governed by the rule of law – an organization of freedom in which the mechanism of violence and the apparatus of political domination are mediated and limited by law. This is his undeniable merit.
At the same time, the thinker placed the state above society and the individual, denied the independent value of individual rights and freedoms, elevated the German nation above others, which is a conservative and anti-democratic elements of his political teachings.
Thus, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which were the period of the early bourgeois revolutions, the two most important directions of sociopolitical thought were formed in Western Europe: liberalism and socialism. The first of them had an anti-feudal orientation, the second – anti-capitalist. These main directions of socio-political thought were further developed in the following centuries.
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. Abstract
Today, the Corruption Perceptions Index is one of the important indicators focused on by foreign investors and analytical structures close to the governments of highly developed countries. It is used in political science and econometric research to explain the effectiveness of public administration, economic development and the level of democracy.
Researchers and journalists are constantly attracted by the research of Transparency International. Among them, the most famous is the “corruption rating” of different countries. However, the description of this rating, given, in particular, in the media, is sometimes very superficial.
The purpose of our review is to analyze information about Transparency International, its initiatives and projects, the organization’s methodological approach to calculating a generalized corruption rating, familiarizing the general public with the main results of this project, defining the relationship corruption with socio-economic development of different countries.
Areas of activity Transparency International
The international non-governmental organization Transparency International (TI) with 87 offices around the world (secretariat located in Berlin), headed by World Bank Director Peter Eigen, former operates in several directions. It works with the private sector and NGOs to create a body of business anti-corruption principles and training programs based on codes of professional ethics.
At the international level, the organization initiated the adoption of agreements on the waiver of bribery in concluding government contracts. TI also proposes the text of a multilateral agreement on transparency for discussion by the World Trade Organization. As part of its activities, the organization has created an Internet portal, which publishes information about the bibliography, a guide to combating corruption, reports on the characteristics of national integrity systems of individual countries, publishes the results of scientific research.